Kidney failure, also called end-stage renal disease (ESRD), means your kidneys are not working well enough for you to survive without dialysis or a kidney transplant. Kidney failure is the last stage of chronic kidney disease.
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Kidneys are twin organs positioned in the lower abdomen. As much as one-third of all the blood pumped by the heart passes into the kidneys to be filtered before traveling to the rest of the body's tissues. While you can live with only one functioning kidney, the loss of both kidneys leads to a rapid accumulation of wastes within a few days.
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European Renal Association, European Dialysis and Transplant Association and American Society of Nephrology together have declared that chronic kidney diseases affect more than 850 million people worldwide as of 2018. This is twice the number of diabetics and more than 20 times the number of people with cancer. 10.5 million people among them suffer from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and need dialysis or a kidney transplant.